In the 1790s a racecourse, printing press, bank and coffee house all opened, and Cardiff gained a stagecoach service to London.
A writer around this period described Cardiff: "The River Taff runs under the walls of his honours castle and from the north part of the town to the south part where there is a fair quay and a safe harbour for shipping." During the Second English Civil War, St Fagans just to the west of the town, played host to the Battle of St Fagans.
The battle, between a Royalist rebellion and a New Model Army detachment, was a decisive victory for the Parliamentarians and allowed Oliver Cromwell to conquer Wales.
Original Roman work can, however, still be distinguished in the wall facings.
A town grew up in the shadow of the castle, made up primarily of settlers from England.
The city was awarded the title of European City of Sport twice, due to its role in hosting major international sporting events: first in 2009 and again in 2014., and was perhaps also driven by folk etymology (dydd is Welsh for 'day' whereas dyf has no obvious meaning).
This sound change had probably first occurred in the Middle Ages; both forms were current in the Tudor period.
It was the centre of the Norman Marcher Lordship of Glamorgan and by the end of the 13th century, Cardiff was the only town in Wales with a population exceeding 2,000, although it remained relatively small compared with most notable towns in the Kingdom of England, and continued to be very much contained by its walls, which has begun as a wooden palisade in the early 12th century.
As many buildings in the town were made of timber, and tightly packed together within the town walls, much of Cardiff was destroyed.
The area passed through his family until the advent of the Normans in the 11th century.